Wireless sensor network (WSNs) are network of Sensor Nodes (SNs) with
inherent sensing, processing and communicating abilities. One of current concerns in
wireless sensor networks is developing a stable clustered heterogeneous protocol prolonging
the network lifetime with minimum consumption of battery power. In the recent times,
many routing protocols have been proposed increasing the network lifetime, stability in
short proposing a reliable and robust routing protocol. In this paper we study the impact of
hierarchical clustered network with sensor nodes of two-level heterogeneity. The main
approach in this research is to develop an enhanced multi-hop IDEEC routing protocol
unlike DEEC. Simulation results show the proposed protocol is better than DEEC in terms
of FDN (First Dead Node), energy consumption and Packet transmission.



Full Text:



N. Rahmani, H. Kousha, L. Darougaran,

and F. Nematy, (2010) " CAT: The New

Clustering Algorithm Based on Two-Tier

Network Topology for Energy Balancing in

Wireless Sensor Networks," in International

Conference on Computational Intelligence

and Communication Networks (CICN), pp.


W. B. Heinzelman, A. P. Chandrakasan,

and H. Balakrishnan, (2002) "An

application-specific protocol architecture

for wireless microsensor networks,"

Wireless Communications, IEEE

Transactions on, vol. 1, pp. 660-670.

L. Dehni, F. Krief, and Y. Bennani, (2006)

"Power Control and Clustering in Wireless

Sensor Networks," in Challenges in Ad Hoc

Networking. vol. 197, pp. 31-40.

W.R. Heinzelman, A. Chandrakasan and H.

Balakrishnan, (2000) “Energy-efficient

communication protocol for wireless

microsensor networksâ€, In Proc.

International Conference on System


pp. 4-7, Maui, Hawaii.

Q. Wang and I. Balasingham, (2010)

“Wireless sensor networks: Application

centric designâ€, Journal of

Communications, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 134-

S. Lindsey and C.S. Raghavendra, (2002)

“PEGASIS: Power-Efficient Gathering in

Sensor Information Systemsâ€, IEEE

Proceedings on Aerospace, vol. 3, no.2,


O. Younis and S. Fahmy, (2004) "HEED: A

hybrid, energy efficient, distributed

clustering approach for ad hoc sensor

networks", IEEE Transactions on Mobile

Computing, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 660-669.

G. Smaragdakis, I. Matta and A. Bestavros,

(2004) “SEP: A Stable Election Protocol for

Clustered Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor

Networksâ€, In Proc. of IEEE International

Workshop on SANPA, pp. 1–11, Boston.

L. Qing, Q. Zhu and M. Wang,(2006)

â€Design of a distributed energy-efficient

clustering algorithm for heterogeneous

wireless sensor networksâ€, Journal of

Computer Communications, vol. 29, no.4,

pp. 2230-2237.

B. Elbhiri, S. Rachid, S. El Fkihi and D.

Aboutajdine, (2010) “Developed distributed

energy-efficient clustering (DDEEC) for

heterogeneous wireless sensor networksâ€,

In proc. IEEE 5th International Symposium

on I/V Communications and Mobile

Network, pp. 1-4. Rabat.

S. Singh, A.K. Chauhan, S. Raghav, V.

Tyagi and S. Johri, (2011) “Heterogeneous

protocols for increasing lifetime of wireless

sensor networksâ€, Journal of Global

Research in Computer Science, vol.2, no. 4,


M.M. Islam, M.A. Matin, and T.K Mondol,

(2012) “Extended stable election protocol

for three-level hierarchical clustered

heterogeneous WSNâ€, In Proc. of IET

Conference on Wireless Sensor Systems,

pp. 1-4, London, England.qq.

A.A. Khan, N. Javaid, U. Qasim, Z. Lu and

Z. A. Khan, (2012) “HSEP: Heterogeneity-

Aware Hierarchical Stable Election Protocol

for WSNsâ€, In Proc. IEEE International

Conference on Broadband and Wireless

Computing, Communication and

Applications, pp. 373-378, Victoria,


Q. Nadeem, M.B. Rasheed, N. Javaid, Z.A

Khan, Y. Maqsood and A. Din, (2013) “MGEAR:

Gateway-Based Energy-Aware

Multi-Hop Routing Protocol for WSNsâ€, In

proc. IEEE International Conference on

Broadband, Wireless Computing,

Communication and Applications, pp. 164-

, Compiegne, France.

Faisal, S., Javaid, N., Javaid, A., Khan,

M.A., Bouk, S.H. and Khan, Z.A. (2013),“ZSEP:

Zonal-Stable Election Protocol for

Wireless Sensor Networksâ€, Journal of

Basic and Applied Scientific Research, vol.

, 5, pp. 132-139.

C. Divya ,N. Krishnan and P.

Krishnapriya,(2013) â€Modified distributed

energy efficient cluster for heterogeneous

wireless sensor networksâ€, In proc. IEEE

Conference on Emerging trends in

Computing, Communication and

Nanotechnology, pp. 611-615, Tirunelveli.

M.Y. Wang, J. Ding, W.P. Chen and W.Q.

Guan, (2015) â€SEARCH: A stochastic

election approach for heterogeneous

wireless sensor networksâ€, IEEE

Communication letters, vol.9, no.3, pp.


P. Jain, H. Kaur, (2014) “Gateway based

stable election multi hop routing protocol

for wireless sensor networks†International

Journal of Mobile Network

Communications & Telematics, vol. 4, no.5,

in Computing, Communication and

Informatics, pp. 68-73, New Delhi, India.


  • There are currently no refbacks.